Now it’s time to put it all together!
Using your essay plan and research notes write a first draft as the ideas come to you. Don’t worry too much at this stage about phrasing or spelling; just concentrate on getting your ideas across logically.The main body of your essay should contain a thorough analysis of the topic.
Final points to note
Use a variety of each type
1. Direct Quote
When using someone else exact words, always place them within “quotation marks”.
Instead of using a direct quote you can re-write someone else’s idea or theory in your own words. This is called paraphrasing. However, you must completely re-write the original text – you cannot simply change it around a little!
If you want to give a brief synopsis of the entire content of another work, you can briefly summarise it without going into a lot of detail.
When you use the words or ideas from another person’s work, reference it! Be consistent in your referencing. Be aware of which referencing style you should use & follow the format set out in the Library guide.
When paraphrasing, make sure you completely re-write the original text in your own words. Take notes or keywords from the original. Put the original text away and re-write in your own words using your notes. Always reference the original.
Examples of Good & Bad Paraphrasing
Global warming affects most people in the world, especially those living in low-lying areas near the sea. It has been predicted that the melting of polar ice may cause the sea to rise by as much as twelve metres by 2050.
Bad Paraphrasing - Plagiarism
Global warming affects a lot of people across the world, in particular people living near the sea. Experts predict that the melting ice of the poles will result in the sea rising by as much as twelve metres by 2050 (Murphy, 2010).
Good Paraphrasing - Not Plagiarism
The increasing temperature of the earth’s climate, known as global warming, is causing the polar ice-caps to melt. The effects of this are felt worldwide but people who live at sea level are at particular risk due to rising sea levels, which have been calculated to rise by at least twelve metres in the next forty years (Murphy, 2010, p. 26).
Structure: Organise your information into a cohesive, structured format (see the previous step - ‘Creating a Blueprint’ – for more information)
Style: (though not at the expense of substance!)
Sources: An inadequate bibliography weakens the scholarly quality of your work. Aim to include in your bibliography, several books, peer reviewed journal articles, a website or two and perhaps a newspaper article or two, if appropriate. Substantiate your arguments with references to other people’s work. Other sources that students can draw upon depending on your subject area include market research reports, annual reports, etc. Use sources that that represent different views or concepts in order to produce an unbiased analysis of the topic.
Substance: Your essay needs to give a substantial answer to the question. It should not be just descriptive of the topic but rather, an analytical investigation with a concrete argument and conclusion.