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Referencing: IEEE Style

IEEE referencing is a specific, numerical style of referencing. When inputting an in-text citation in this style, an IEEE reference appears after the reference in square brackets and is treated as if it is a footnote number.

e.g “This is a quote,” [1], and “this is another quote,” [2], etc.

Computing students within Dublin Business School have the option of using either the IEEE referencing format or the Harvard referencing format in their assignments.

This guide presents examples of how to reference textual sources. However, if you use material from non-textual sources such as podcasts, documentaries, figure, or code, you must also cite the source in full.

This guide presents examples of how to reference textual sources.  However if you use material from non-textual sources such as podcasts or documentaries you must also cite the source in full. 

For more information and examples, refer to Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2022) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 

(Note that other, older versions of this book are available in the library too). 

Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Book  single author According to Trott [1] innovation has helped ... [1] P. Trott, Innovation Management and New Product Development, 6th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education, 2017.
Book – two to three authors The discipline of software engineering has grown steadily…[2]

[2] R. Pressman, and B.R. Maxim, Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach, 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2014.
Book – four or more authors It has been suggested that it is simpler to write your code with fragments at the early stages of an app's development… [3] [3] K. Marsicano, A. Brandon-Jones, B. Gardner, B. Phillips and C. Stewart, .Operations and Process Management :Principles and Practice for Strategic Impact, 4th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education, 2015.
Book editor The security of the cloud may hinder its further development [4].

[4] Z. Mahmood, “Attacks in public clouds: can they hinder the rise of the cloud,” in Cloud Computing : Challenges, Limitations and R&D Solutions, Z. Mahmood Ed. London: Springer International, 2014.

Book – chapter in an edited book Hamad [5] discusses the idea that... [5] F Hamad,"Approaches to information architecture’", in Information Systems :Process and Practice, C Urquhart, F Hamad, D.Tbaishat and A. Yeoman, Eds. London: Facet Publishing, 2018, pp. 9-31.
Book – multiple works by same author (published in different years) Laudon and Laudon [6],[7] explain that... [6] K.C.Laudon and J.P. Laudon, J.P, Management Information Systems : Managing The Digital Firm, 7th edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.

[7] K.C.Laudon, and J.P. Laudon,Essentials of Management Information System, 8th edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2009.

Book – multiple works by same author (published in same year) The view proposed by Atrill and McLaney[8],[9]... [8] P. Atrill and E, McLaney, Accounting and Finance for Non-Specialists, 11th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education, 2019.

[9] P.Atrill and E McLaney, Financial Accounting for Decision Makers ,9th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education, 2019.

Book – no identifiable author [10] Debenture is defined as... [10] Dictionary of Business Terms ,Wokingham: Kaplan Publishing, 2018.
eBook – from an eBook reader. (no page numbers) According to Stiglitz [11, Loc. 1956] the..


Smith [12 Cha. 5, Sec. 4, Para. 9] stated…


Jones [13, No Pagination] warned that…
[11]J, Stiglitz,The Price of Inequality. [Name of e-book reader] London: Penguin, 2013.



  1. Kindles allow users to see the location of text, use this as an identifier (Loc.).
  2. For other formats use chapter (Cha.), section (Sec.) and paragraph (Para.) where possible.
  3. If none exist use no pagination.
eBook from ProQuest Ebook Central (DBS eBook collection) The are three principles of classical cyptography as set out by Katz and Lindell [14]. [14]J Katz and Y Lindell, Introduction to Modern Cryptography, 2nd ed. London, CRC Press 2015. [Online] Available: Proquest Central E-Books.


Use the name of the city in which the publisher is located in your reference. If there is more than one city listed (e.g. New York, London, etc.) use the nearest geographical place or the location of the publisher’s head office.

If the town/city is not well known, you may add a county, region or state. Note, in the USA states are denoted by a two letter code, e.g. NJ = New Jersey.

This and other bibliographic information, can be found on the back of the book's title page

Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Journal - article from a print journal ...these funds are now redomiciling in Ireland [15]. [15] M. Camlin And C. O’Leary. “Ireland’s onshore funds model”, Fin. Dublin, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 13-14, 2010.

Volume & Issue information:

15 = Volume number

3 = Issue number

eJournal – full text article in an electronic database According to Wieckowski [16], “the suburbs have lost their sheen”. [16] A. Wieckowski. (2010) “Back to the city”, Harvard Busi. Review, vol. 88, vol. 5, pp. 23-25. 2010. EBSCOhost [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 25 May 2010].
eJournal – full text article from a free open-access online journal Analysis by Busato, Chiarini and Marchetti [17] depicts tax evasion as... [17] F. Busato, C. Chiarini and E. Marchetti. “Tax Shocks, Sunspots and Tax Evasion”, The Open Eco. Journal, vol. 3, pp. 14-24. 2010. DOAJ [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 25 May 2010].
Newspaper – article from a print newspaper ... to curb their public debts and deficit spending [18]. [18] Q. Peel. “Berlin pushes for global curbs.” Fin.Times, p. 6. May 21, 2010.


eNewspaper – article from an online newspaper (accessed directly through the newspaper’s website) ... which is currently running close to 11 per cent of GDP [19].

If an author’s name is given, enter in the reference list, as in the Newspaper example above.

[19] “British chancellor unveils £6.25bn in spending cuts”, The Irish Times, 24 May, 2010. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 24 May 2010]. (Accessed: 24 May 2010).
eReport – from an electronic database It was noted recently by Mintel [20]... [20] Mintel “Non-traditional Financial Services Providers - Evaluating the role of NTPs in Ireland”, Mintel oxygen reports platform, Irish series. 2009. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 25 May 2010].

Evaluating Websites: You should always ask the question ‘Is this website reliable?’ when using the internet for research. Check out the guide to ‘Evaluating Websites’ for further details.


Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Web page with an individual author In a bid to create a more profitable service [21] [21] S. Todd. “Fine tuning spa menus with CRASE”. Leisure Management. [Online].[Accessed: May 24. 2010].


Web page with an organisation as author ... should help in identifying those patterns.” [22] [22] Department of Enterprise, Trade and Innovation. “Credit Supply Clearing Group”. [Online]. [Accessed: May 24. 2010].
Web page with no author The prime minister will say "progress will not always be smooth",[23] [23] “Theresa May: 'We can prove Brexit doomsayers wrong”. [Online]. [Accessed: Oct. 9 2017].
Web page with no author and no date A financial instrument that references and offers economic exposure to the performance of an equity asset... [24] [24] “Equity Derivative | Practical Law" [Online]. [Accessed: May 25. 2010].
Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Citing Computer Code in a Report or Paper [Code Example] [25]. [25] C. Parnot .‘Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, 1.0.’ GitHub. 2012. [Source Code]. Available at: [Accessed: Jan. 11 2019].


Citing a Dataset in a Report or Paper General house characteristics were recorded by Ambrose [26] [26] M. Ambrose, Air Infiltration Results for 129 Australian Dwellings, vol. 1, Canberra: CSIRO, 2018. [Dataset]. Available: [Accessed: July 4 2019].
Citing Software in a Report or Paper Use of Mixed Mode–Mixed level Circuit Simulator [27] [27] D. W. Arning et al. Mixed Mode–Mixed level Circuit Simulator. (2011). Ngspice. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Jan. 11, 2019.]
Citing a Code Repository in a Report or Paper “a collection of preprogrammed templates that implement a behavior when invoked” [28] [28] “library. Github Topics. Github.”. [Online]. [Accessed: Oct. 9 2017].
Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Podcast with author/presenter Verity et al. noted that the Olympics had a detrimental effect on sales [29] [29] A.Verity, et al.Retail sales figures (2018) Accessed: Sept. 4th 2022 [Podcast]. Available:
Podcast without author Internal networks are critical [30] ... [30] Oracle Business Sense Structure (2013) Accessed: 17 October 2018. Available:,,329509709,00.xml
Online video sharing platform - entire video By making Mars inhabitable [31] ... [31] National Geographic. Could we terraform Mars? (1 November 2018). Accessed: 21 July 2022 Available:
Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Facebook The HIQUA report noted the need for investment in ambulance services [32]. [32] L. Varadkar. "HIQUA report can be catalyst for further improvement of ambulance services." Facebook. 2 December 2014. Available : 7 February 2019)
Instagram posts/stories He offered her a slice of cake [33] … [32] D.Tusk. "A piece of cake perhaps?" Instagram. 20 September 2018. Available at: (Accessed: 7 February 2019).
Twitter Laura Kuenssbrg tweeted on the party conference [34]. [34] L. Kuenssberg. @bbclauarak. "anyone might imagine that inside he’s a tiny bit pleased". Twitter. 25 September 2018. Available at: (Accessed: 19 December 2022).



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