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Referencing: Referencing Methods

1. Direct quotes should be used sparingly and only when relevant to your argument. Short and long quotes are treated differently.

2. Short quotes (less than 40 words) should be contained within the main body of your text with a citation which includes the page number and quotation marks, as in the following example:

Example (Harvard & APA Style):

Pilbeam (2010, p. 137) stated that a “motive for a firm issuing a convertible bond is that it regards its stock valuation as too low and does not wish to raise a given amount of cash by a rights issue”.

3. Long quotes (40 words or more) should be entered as a separate paragraph from the main body of your text.  The quotation should be indented and contain a full citation.  Quotation marks are not required.

Example (Harvard & APA Style):

Pilbeam (2010) describes stock market crashes such as the global collapse on 19 October 1987 as:

such crashes represent the effects of irrational market speculation, or so-called speculative bubbles; there is too much self-fulfilling speculation which is detached from company fundamentals.  It is argued that stock markets are sometimes subjected to speculative manias during which the market gets pushed well out of line with fundamental valuations.  Speculators start to believe that a price rise signals a further future rise and consequently they purchase more shares, and for a while speculation becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy (Pilbeam, 2010, p. 252).

4. If you omit a section of a quote, place three dots (...) in place of the removed text.

5. If you want to explain a section of the quote in more detail (with your own words), place your explanation inside square brackets within the text of the quote, as in the following example:

Example (Harvard & APA Style)

“More critically, it [the Labour Party] needed to find a new set of messages for it to connect with the changed circumstances of the 1990s” (Negrine, 2008, p. 57).

1. Paraphrasing is re-writing or re-stating another person’s idea or argument in your own words, rather than using a direct quote.

2. You must always cite (including page number) and reference the original material when you paraphrase another writer’s work.

3. Paraphrasing is often more appropriate than a direct quote as it does not disrupt the natural flow of your own writing style.

Example:

O’Toole (2003, p. 17) highlights the irony of the fact that although the Republic of Ireland is held up as an ideal to those who advocate small government, the economics of the Republic are in many ways those of big government.

1. Summarising is different to paraphrasing.  When you summarise something you create a brief synopsis or list the main points of another piece of work without providing minute detail of the arguments or ideas portrayed in that work.

2. As with quotations and paraphrasing, you must always cite (no page number needed) and reference the original author(s).

Example:

A popular study in the field of global economics is one produced by Harford (2006) in which he describes the fundamental principles of the modern economy and the reasons why the gap between rich and poor nations is so vast by explaining that scarcity dictates price (supply and demand) and that prices are set according to the information available to both buyer and seller.

Imagine if you read a book/article written by Author A (Smith) and they cite another person, Author B (Jones). The information cited is exactly the evidence you need to argue your case for your assignment. How do you reference this information? In the best case scenario you would locate Author B's work and read it yourself. If this is not possible you can still cite the information but you will need to secondary reference it.

Harvard Style APA Style

In text citation format: 

(Author cited, year of that work, cited in, Author you read, year of that work, page number you read it from)

Example: 

A recent paper found that the majority of online purchases was by millennial (Jones, 2012, cited in Smith, 2013, p. 102). 

In text citation format: 

(Author cited, year of that work, as cited in, Author you read, year of that work, page number you read it from)

Example: 

A recent paper found that the majority of homeless people had been on the streets for over five years (Jones, 2015, as cited in Smith, 2015, p. 31). 

Reference List: You only include the sources that you yourself read in the reference list (in this example, Smith).  Reference List: You only include the sources that you yourself read in the reference list (in this example, Smith). 

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