Skip to main content
Banner Image Main site Library home page Library home page

Library & Information Studies: Referencing

Library and Information Management assignments and dissertations use the Harvard Referencing Style.

Harvard referencing is a specific style of referencing.  This style is often referred to as the ‘author-date’ style.  As there is no single authority to define this style, several different versions of Harvard Referencing exist.  Please refer to this guide for the specific version used within Dublin Business School.  All Business students within Dublin Business School are required to use the Harvard referencing format in their assignments. 

This guide presents examples of how to reference textual sources.  However if you use material from non-textual sources such as podcasts or documentaries you must also cite the source in full. 

For more information and examples, refer to Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 

(Note that other, older versions of this book are available in the library too). 

Print version of this guide. 

Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Book  single author According to Cooper (2009, p. 309) the Central Bank had... Cooper, M. (2009) Who really runs Ireland?: the story of the elite who lead Ireland from bust to boom...and back again. Dublin: Penguin.
Book – two to three authors It is therefore difficult to legally differentiate between a contractual transaction and a gift of promise (Clark and Clarke, 2008, p. 121). 

OR

Clark and Clarke (2008, p. 121) state that it is therefore difficult to...

Clark, R. and Clarke, B. (2008) Contract cases and materials. 4th edn. Dublin: Gill & Macmillian.
Book – four or more authors Turban et al. (2008, pp. 25 - 27) highlight the transformative influence of social networks... Turban, E., Leidner, D., McLean, E. and Wetherbe, J. (2008) Information technology for management: transforming organizations in the digital economy. 6th edn. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Book editor ... native cooks whose recipes they appropriate.” (Counihan and Van Esterik, 1997, p. 5).

Counihan, C. and Van Esterik, P. (eds.) (1997) Food and culture: a reader. 2nd edn. New York: Routledge.

Book – chapter in an edited book Mantrala (2006, p. 151) discusses the idea that... Mantrala, M.K. (2006) ‘Allocating marketing resources’ in Weitz, B. and Wensley, R. (eds.) Handbook of marketing. London: SAGE, pp. 409-435.
Book – multiple works by same author (published in different years) Laudon and Laudon (2001, 2009) explain that... Laundon, K.C. and Laudon, J.P. (2001) Management information systems : managing the digital firm. 7th edn.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Laundon, K.C. and Laudon, J.P. (2009) Essentials of management information systems. 8th edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Book – multiple works by same author (published in same year) The view proposed by Kotler (2005a, 2005b)... Kotler, P. (2005a) According to Kotler: The World's Foremost Authority on Marketing Answers Your Questions. New York: AMACOM.

Kotler, P. (2005b) FAQs on marketing : answered by the guru of marketing. London: Cyan.

Book – no identifiable author Debenture is defined as... (Dictionary of Business Terms, 2008, p. 40). Dictionary of Business Terms (2008) Wokingham: Kaplan Publishing.
eBook – from an eBook reader. (no page numbers) 1. According to Stiglitz (2013, loc. 1956) the..

2. Smith (2012, cha. 5, sec. 4, para. 9) stated…

3. Jones (2011, no pagination) warned that…
Stiglitz, J. (2013). The price of inequality. [Name of e-book reader] London: Penguin.

 

Note: 

  1. Kindles allow users to see the location of text, use this as an identifier (loc.).
  2. For other formats use chapter (cha.), section (sec.) and paragraph (para.) where possible.
  3. If none exist use no pagination
eBook from Dawsonera.com (DBS eBook collection) The fundamentals of good accounting practice, as set out by Dyson (2007, p. 19)... Dyson, J.R. (2007) Accounting for non-accounting students. 7th edn. Harlow: Pearson Education. Dawsonera [Online]. Available at: http://www.dawsonera.com/depp/reader/protected/external/AbstractView/S9781408212066 (Accessed: 24 May 2010).

Notes

Use the name of the city in which the publisher is located in your reference. If there is more than one city listed (e.g. New York, London, etc.) use the nearest geographical place or the location of the publisher’s head office.

If the town/city is not well known, you may add a county, region or state. Note, in the USA states are denoted by a two letter code, e.g. NJ = New Jersey.

This and other bibliographic information, can be found on the back of the book's title page

Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Journal - article from a print journal ...these funds are now redomiciling in Ireland (Camlin and O’Leary, 2010, p. 13). Camlin, M. And O’Leary, C. (2010) ‘Ireland’s onshore funds model’, Finance Dublin, 15(3), pp. 13-14.

Volume & Issue information:

15 = Volume number

3 = Issue number

eJournal – full text article an electronic database According to Wieckowski (2010, p. 23), “the suburbs have lost their sheen”. Wieckowski, A. (2010) ‘Back to the city’, Harvard Business Review, 88 (5), pp. 23-25. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost [Online]. (Accessed: 25 May 2010).
eJournal – full text article from a free open-access online journal Analysis by Busato, Chiarini and Marchetti (2010, pp. 16 - 20) depicts tax evasion as...                                        Busato, F. Chiarini C. and Marchetti E. (2010) ‘Tax Shocks, Sunspots and Tax Evasion’, The Open Economics Journal, 3, pp. 14-24. Directory of Open Access Journals [Online]. Available at http://www.bentham.org/open/toeconsj/openaccess2.htm (Accessed: 25 May 2010).
Newspaper – article from a print newspaper ... to curb their public debts and deficit spending (Peel, 2010). Peel, Q. (2010) ‘Berlin pushes for global curbs’. Financial Times, 21 May, p. 6.

 

eNewspaper – article from an online newspaper (accessed directly through the newspaper’s website) ... which is currently running close to 11 per cent of GDP (The Irish Times, 2010).

If an author’s name is  given, enter in the citation & reference list, as in the Newspaper example above.

The Irish Times (2010) ‘British chancellor unveils £6.25bn in spending cuts’, The Irish Times, 24 May [Online].  Available at: http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/breaking/2010/0524/breaking29.html (Accessed: 24 May 2010).
eReport – from an electronic database It was noted recently by Mintel (2009)... Mintel (2009) ‘Non-traditional Financial Services Providers - Evaluating the role of NTPs in Ireland’, Mintel oxygen reports platform, Irish series [Online]. (Accessed: 25 May 2010).

Evaluating Websites: You should always ask the question ‘Is this website reliable?’ when using the internet for research. Check out the guide to ‘Evaluating Websites’ for further details.

Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Web page with an individual author In a bid to create a more profitable service (Todd, 2010). Todd, S. (2010) ‘Fine tuning spa menus with CRASE’, Leisure Management. Available at: http://www.leisuremanagement.co.uk/detail1.cfm?pagetype=detail&subject=news&codeID=193993&site=LM  (Accessed: 24 May 2010)

 

Web page with an organisation as author ... should help in identifying those patterns.” (Department of Enterprise, Trade and Innovation, 2010). Department of Enterprise, Trade and Innovation (2010) ‘Credit Supply Clearing Group’. Available at: http://www.entemp.ie/enterprise/smes/creditsupply.htm (Accessed: 24 May 2010).
Web page with no author .The prime minister will say "progress will not always be smooth",(‘Theresa May: "We can prove Brexit doomsayers wrong'’', 2017).                                     Theresa May: 'We can prove Brexit doomsayers wrong' (2017). Available at http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-41546701 (Accessed: 9th Oct 2017).
Web page with no author and no date ...can only be traded on a recognised exchange (‘A Reuters guide to Equity Derivatives’, no date). 'A Reuters guide to Equity Derivatives (no date). Available at http://www2.reuters.com/productinfo/s/equity_derivatives/ (Accessed: 25 May 2010).

 

eNewspaper – article from an online newspaper (accessed directly through the newspaper’s website) ... which is currently running close to 11 per cent of GDP (The Irish Times, 2010).

If an author’s name is  given, enter that in the citation & reference list (as in the 'Newspaper' example in the 'Journals Newspapers and Reports' section above), if there is no author , then use the title of the newspaper .

The Irish Times (2010) ‘British chancellor unveils £6.25bn in spending cuts’, The Irish Times, 24 May [Online].  Available at: http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/breaking/2010/0524/breaking29.html (Accessed: 24 May 2010).
eReport – from an electronic database It was noted recently by Mintel (2009)... Mintel (2009) ‘Non-traditional Financial Services Providers - Evaluating the role of NTPs in Ireland’, Mintel oxygen reports platform, Irish series [Online]. (Accessed: 25 May 2010).

Open Today

 

More hours