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Referencing: APA Style

APA referencing is a specific style of referencing which has been set out and standardised by the American Psychological Association (APA).  This guide provides students with a brief introduction to using this referencing style, with examples for the most commonly used source-types provided on the following pages. For further details and examples, students should refer to the APA’s Official Publication Manual and Concise Rules of APA Style, which are available in the Library.

All Arts students within Dublin Business School are required to use the APA referencing format in their assignments. 

This guide presents examples of how to reference textual sources.  However if you use material from non-textual sources such as podcasts or documentaries you must also cite the source in full.

For more information and examples, refer to Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2022) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 

(Note, that other, older versions of this book are available in the library too). 

Print version of this guide.

Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Book single author

Sunsten (2019, p. 40) discusses the idea that...

Sunsten, C. (2019). How Change Happens. MIT Press.
Book – two authors

...discuss the impact modern office settings can have on peoples well being, makingthem feel like clones working on mindless tasks in a boring environment (Hogg and Vaughan, 2018, p.289).


Hogg and Vaughan (2018, p. 289) highlight the impact modern office settings can have on ...

Hogg, M., & Vaughan, G. (2018). Social Psychology. (8th ed.). Routledge.

Book -three or more authors (use the first author's surname followed by et al. for all mentions in-text)

All citations:

Share et al. (2012, p. 169) found that...

Share, P., Tovey, H., & Corcoran, M. P. (2012). A sociology of Ireland (4th ed.).Gill & Macmillan. 

Book  editor

...are examples of well known studies in social psychology (Smith and Haslam, 2012, p.13).

Smith, J. R., & Haslam, S. A. (Eds.). (2012) Social psychology: Revisiting the classic studies.Sage Publications

Book – chapter in an edited book

Petermann (2015, p. 72) discusses the idea that...

Petermann, E. (2015). Monster mash-ups: Features of the horrow musical. In L. Piatti-Farnell & D.L. Brien (Eds.), New Directions in 21st century gothic: The gothic compass (4th ed., pp. 71-83).Taylor and Francis

Book – multiple works by same authors 

Giddens and Sutton (2013, 2017) explains that...

NOTE: If works were published in the same year, enter a symbol or letter beside the year in the in-text citation to link it to the relevant reference list entry, e.g. Giddens and Sutton (2009a, 2009b)

Giddens, A. & Sutton, P. W. (2013) Sociology.Oxford University Press.

Giddens, A. & Sutton, P. W. (2017) Sociology.Oxford University Press. 

Book – organisation as an author

First citation: a standardised approach (American Psychological Association [APA], 2020, p. 17).

Second citation: highlight the issue (APA, 2020, p. 182).

American Psychological Association [APA] (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). Author. 


When the author and publisher are the same, use the word ‘Author’ as the name of the publisher.


Book – no identifiable author

...which was set out in the 1937 constitution of Ireland (Facts about Ireland, 2001, p. 36).

Facts about Ireland. (2001).Department of Foreign Affairs, Information Section.


Psychology is hybrid subject comprising of theories and concepts rooted in religion and philosophy (Miller, 2015, p. 3).

Miller, R. B. (2015). Not so abnormal psychology: A pragmatic view of mental illness. American Psychological Association.


MANAGING YOUR REFERENCES: You can use a software Zotero to manage your references. Check out the Library's guide to Zotero, available online and in the library.

*For more information and examples please refer to the following publication (available in the library): American Psychological Association [APA] (2020). Concise rules of APA style (7th ed.).Author.

This and other bibliographic information, can be found on the back of the book's title page.

Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Journal – article from a print journal

...that reminiscences are not memories that are remembered (Ball, 2018, p. 55).

Ball, T. (2017). Reconstructing Reminiscences.The Letter, (67), 55-65.

Volume & Issue information:

Provide the Volume number if listed.

66/67 = Issue number

eJournal – full text article an electronic database

Rockwell (2019) evaluated a multi modal stress management course for college students...

Rockwell, D. (2019). Mindfulness in psychotherapy and love as the healing balm. The Humanistic Psychologist, 47(4), 339–343.

eJournal – full text article from a free open-access online journal

Findings by Sweeney and Hughes (2017, p.24) indicate...


Sweeney, S. and Hughes, D. (2017) 'Integrating visual literacy training into the business curriculum. A case study at Dublin Business School', DBS Business Review, 1(0). doi: 10.22375/dbsbr.v1.7.

Newspaper – article from a print newspaper

The issue was highlighted in a recent  newspaper report  (Campbell, 2010).

Campbell, D. (2010, May 25). Younger people worry more about loneliness. The Guardian, p. 13.

eNewspaper – article retrieved directly from a newspaper’s website

Since October 2017 and September 2018, there has been a 22.5% increase in the number if immigrants detained. (Fernandez, 2019)

Fernandez, E. (2019, May 14) A US city cuts ties with its troubled migrant detention center. That could make things even worse...The Guardian.


In-text Citation: (Freud, 1923/2001). In-text Citation: (Freud, 1923).

Reference List:

Freud, S. (2001). The ego and the id. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19, pp. 3-66). London: Vintage. (Original work published 1923)


Reference List:

Freud, S. (1923). The Ego and the Id. Standard Edition (Vol. 19).


As the PEP Archive version splits the original work into sections, you should cite each section separately.] 

Evaluating Websites: You should always ask the question ‘Is this website reliable?’ when using the internet for research. Check out the guide to ‘Evaluating Websites’ for further details.

Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Web page with an individual author Warren (2015) explains the connection between women, animals and nature. Warren, K., J. (2015) Feminist Environmental Philosophy.Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy website:

Web page with an organisation as author “It also highlights the inequality of pay for nurses and carers working in aged care“ (HealthTimes, 2015). HealthTimes. (2015) The future of aged care nursing in Australia.
Web page with no author and no date ... infant mortality rate was significantly higher amongst working class families (“The World of the Child,” n.d.). The World of The Child. (n.d.).
Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Podcast with author/presenter Speaking with the boss of Birmingham Airport, Paul Kehoe and travel expert Simon Calder… (Curry, 2014) Curry, D. (Host). (2014, September, 4) The Future of Flight [Podcast] In On the Money. Available at: (Accessed: 25 September 2018).
Podcast without author Internal networks are critical (Oracle Business Sense, 2006) ... Oracle Business Sense. (2006, June, 12) Structure [Podcast]. Available at: (Accessed: 17 October 2018).
Online video sharing platform (YouTube, TED etc.) - specific part of video When mixing the plaster (Lancashire Post, 2009, 02:00) ... Note: Always use the Uploader’s name, even if different from the creator/author. If you wish to include the author/create also, you can, adding their role in brackets after their name. Lancashire Post. (2009). Ask the experts – plastering. YouTube. Available at: (Accessed: 13 January 2017).
Online video sharing platform - entire video By making Mars inhabitable (National Geographic, 2018) ... National Geographic (2018) Could we terraform Mars?[Video]. Instagram. Available at: (Accessed: 21 July 2018).
Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Facebook The HIQA "carried out over 1,200 inspections of centres for people with disabilities," (HIQA, 2022) HIQA (2022, August 8). 2021 Overview Report [Facebook Status]. Facebook. Available at: (Accessed: 18 August 2022).
Instagram posts/stories He offered her a slice of cake (Tusk, 2018) … Tusk, D. (2018, September, 20) ‘A piece of cake perhaps?’ [Instagram Post]. Available at: (Accessed: 7 February 2019).
Twitter Laura Kuenssbrg (2022) tweeted on the prime minister's status. Kuenssberg, L. [@bbclaurak] (2022, July 13) ICYMI - this time exactly 7 days ago Boris Johnson was in the No 10 bunker, arguing to stay - the next day he was out - find out what on earth happened here [Tweet] Available at: (Accessed: August 18 2022).



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