Skip to Main Content
Banner Image Main site Library home page Library home page

How to: Reference

What is APA Referencing?

APA referencing is a specific style of referencing which has been set out by the American Psychological Association (APA). This guide provides students with a brief introduction to using this referencing style, with examples for the most commonly used source-types. For further details and examples, students should refer to the APA's Official Publication Manual and Concise Rules of APA Style, which are available in the Library.

All Arts students within Dublin Business School are required to use the APA referencing format in their assignments.

DBS recommends using Cite them Right for more information about APA Referencing.

Click on the link above to be taken to the eBook version.

Books

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

Tomlinson (1999, p. 12) discusses the idea that...

Reference List

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title. (Edition, if not first edition). Publisher.

Tomlinson, J. (1999). Globalisation and Culture . Polity Press.

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

...to help his patients uncover these unconscious memories” (Robbins, Chatterjee, and Canda, 2010, p. 165).

Reference List

Editor Surname, Initial(s) (Ed.). (Year). Title (Edition, if not the first). Publisher.

Robbins, S.P., Chatterjee, P., & Canda, E.R. (Eds.). (2010). Contemporary human behavior theory: A critical perspective for social work (2nd ed.). Pearson.

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

...the impact of media messages can be seen in simple things such as how the weather forecast can influence the clothes people wear (Branston and Stafford, 2006, p. 273).

Branston and Stafford (2006, p. 273) highlight the impact of media messages...

Reference List

First Author Surname, Initial & Second Author Surname Initial. (Year). Title (Edition, if not the first). Publisher.

Branston, G., & Stafford, R. (2006). The media student's book (4th ed.). Routledge.

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

Share,  Tovey, and Corcoran (2007, p. 11) highlight the transformative influence of...

Share et al. (2007, p. 169) found that...

Reference List

First Author Surname, Initials, Second Author Surname, Initials, & Third Author Surname, Initials. (Year). Title (Edition, if not the first). Publisher.

Share, P., Tovey, H., & Corcoran, M. P. (2007). A sociology of Ireland (3rd ed.). Gill & Macmillan.

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

...which was set out in the 1937 constitution of Ireland (Department of Foreign Affairs, 2001, p. 36).

Reference List

Organisation name. (Year). Title (Edition, if not first). Publisher.

Department of Foreign Affairs. (2001). Facts about Ireland . Department of Foreign Affairs.

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

...as a standardised approach (American Psychological Association [APA], 2010, p. 17).

Reference List

Organisation Name. (Year). Title (Edition, if not first). Publisher.

American Psychological Association [APA] (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) Author.
Note: When the author and publisher are the same, use the word 'Author' as the name of the publisher.

Special cases 

In-Text Citation

 

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

Petermann (2015, p.72) discusses the idea that...

Reference List

Author Surname, Initials (Year). Chapter Title. In Editor Initials and Surname (Ed)., Book Title (Edition if not the first, page range). Publisher.

Petermann, E. (2015). Monster mash-ups: Features of the horror musical. In L. Piatti-Farnell & D.L. Brien (Eds.), New Directions in 21st century gothic: The gothic compass (4th ed., pp.71-83). Taylor and Francis.

In-Text Citation

 

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

Giddens and Sutton (2013, 2017) explains that...

Note: If works were published in the same year, enter a symbol or letter beside the year in the in-text citation to link it to the relevant reference list entry, e.g. Giddens and Sutton (2009a, 2009b).

Reference List

The reference would follow the same rules as a book.

In-Text Citation

 

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

(Freud, 1923/2001)

Reference List

Author Surname, Initials (Year of Republication). Chapter title. In Editor Initials and Surname (Ed.), Book Title (Volume, page range). Publisher. (Original work published ___).

Freud, S. (2001). The ego and the id. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19, pp.3-66). Vintage.(Original work published 1923)

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

Psychology is hybrid subject comprising of theories and concepts rooted in religion and philosophy (Miller, 2015, p.3)

Reference List

Author Surname, Initials (Year). Title (Edition, if not the first). Publisher. DOI

Miller, R.B. (2015). Not so abnormal psychology: A pragmatic view of mental illness . American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/14693-000

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

(Freud, 1923)

Reference List

Freud, S. (1923). The Ego and the Id. Standard Edition (Vol. 19). [Electronic version]. Retrieved from PEP Archive database.

Note: As the PEP Archive version splits the original work into sections, you should cite each section separately.

Journals, newspapers and reports

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

...that reminiscences are not memories that are remembered (Ball, 2018, p.55)

Reference List

Author Surname, Initials (Year). Title of article. Title of journal , Volume number (Issue), Page numbers or Article number.

Ball, T. (2017). Reconstructing reminiscences, The Letter , (67), 55-65.

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

Rockwell (2019) evaluated a multi modal stress management course for college students...

Reference List

Author Surname, Initials (Year). Title of article. Title of journal , Volume number (Issue), Page numbers or Article number. DOI or URL.

Rockwell, D. (2019). Mindfulness in psychotherapy and love as the healing balm. The Humanistic Psychologist , 47 (4), 339-343. https://doi.org/10.1037/hum0000127.

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

The issue was highlighted in a recent newspaper report (Campbell, 2010).

Reference List

Author Surname, Initials (Year and date of publication). Title of article. Title of newspaper , Volume if available (Issue if available), page number if available.

Campbell, D. (2010, May 25). Younger people worry more about loneliness. The Guardian , p. 13.

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

Since October 2017 and September 2018, there has been a 22.5% increase in the number of immigrants detained (Fernandez, 2019).

Reference List

Author Surname, Initials (Year and date of publication). Title of article. Title of newspaper , Volume if available (Issue if available), page number if available. DOI or URL.

Fernandez, E. (2019, May 14) A US city cuts ties with its troubled migrant detention center. That could make things even worse... The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/may/14/ice-adelanto-detention-center-geo-group.

Websites

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

Warren (2015) explains the connection between women, animals and nature.

Reference List

Author if available (Date site was published/last updated, or n.d. if no date) Title of webpage . Website name, if different from author. DOI or URL (use Retrieved from URL and date if the content changes over time)

Warren, K.J. (2015) Feminist environmental philosophy . Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-environmental/

Media

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

Speaking with the boss of Birmingham Airport, Paul Kehoe and travel expert Simon Calder...(Curry, 2014).

Reference List

Name of host (Host). (Years podcast aired). Title of Podcast . [Audio or Video podcast]. Production company. DOI or URL (if accessed through an app, name of app).

Curry, D. (Host). (2014-?) On the money [Audio podcast]. BBC. https://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/otm .

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

Speaking with the boss of Birmingham Airport, Paul Kehoe and travel expert Simon Calder...(Curry, 2014).

Reference List

Name of host (Host). (Date podcast was published) Title of podcast [Audio or Video Podcast]. Production company. DOI or URL (if accessed through an app, the name of the app).

Curry, D. (Host). (2014, September 4) The future of flight [Audio podcast]. BBC. https://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/otm .

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

When mixing the plaster (Lancashire Post, 2009, 02:00) ...

Reference List

Lancashire Post. (2009). Ask the experts - plastering . YouTube. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J9wpceIlxCU . (Accessed: 13 January 2017).

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

By making Mars inhabitable (National Geographic, 2018) ...

Reference List

National Geographic (2018) Could we terraform Mars? [Video]. Instagram Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/BppNEWllmRh/ . (Accessed: 21 July 2018).

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

The HIQA "carried out over 1,200 inspections of centres for people with disabilities," (HIQA, 2022)

Reference List

HIQA (2022, August 8). 2021 Overview Report [Facebook Status]. Facebook. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/HIQAIreland/posts/ (Accessed: 18 August 2022).

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

Laura Kuenssberg (2022) tweeted on the prime minister's status.

Reference List

Kuenssberg, L. [@bbclaurak] (2022, July 13) ICYMI - this time exactly 7 days ago Boris Johnson was in the No. 10 bunker, arguing to stay - tweeted on the next day he was out - find out what on earth happened here [Tweet] Available at: https://twitter.com/bbclaurak/status/1547311035589316608 (Accessed: August 18 2022).

In-Text Citation

For an in-text citation, you would cite the source as follows:

He offered her a slice of cake (Tusk, 2018)...

Reference List

Tusk, D. (2018, September 20) 'A piece of cake perhaps?' [Instagram Post]. Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/Bn8Luwbjzf9/ (Accessed: 7 February 2019).