Skip to Main Content
Banner Image Main site Library home page Library home page

Referencing: Harvard Style

Harvard referencing is a specific style of referencing.  This style is often referred to as the ‘author-date’ style.  As there is no single authority to define this style, several different versions of Harvard Referencing exist.  Please refer to this guide for the specific version used within Dublin Business School.  All Business students within Dublin Business School are required to use the Harvard referencing format in their assignments and exams. 

This guide presents examples of how to reference textual sources.  However if you use material from non-textual sources such as podcasts or documentaries you must also cite the source in full. 

For more information and examples, refer to Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2022) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 

(Note that other, older versions of this book are available in the library too). 

Print version of this guide. 

Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Book  single author According to Trott (2017, p. 59) innovation has … Trott, P. (2017) Innovation management and new product development. 6th edn. Harlow: Pearson Education.
Book – two to three authors The duties of project managers have expanded from an operational to a more strategic level (Larson and Gray, 2014, p. 26). 

Larson, E. W. and Gray, C. F. (2014) Project management : the managerial process. 6th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Book – four or more authors Slack et al. (2015, p.6) explains that large business have used operations and process management principles … Slack, N., Brandon-Jones, A., Johnston, R. and Betts, A. (2015) Operations and process management :principles and practice for strategic impact. 4th edn. Harlow: Pearson Education
Book editor ... global warming is a result of the release of greenhouse gases in developed countries (Lechner and Boli, 2012, p.4).

Lechner, F. J. and Boli, J. (eds.) (2012) The globalization reader.. 4th edn. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

Book – chapter in an edited book Hamad (2018, p.21) discusses the idea that ... Hamad, F. (2018) ‘Approaches to information architecture’ in Urquhart, C. and Hamad, F. Tbaishat, D. and Yeoman, A. (eds.) Information systems :process and practice. London: Facet Publishing, pp. 9-31.
Book – multiple works by same author (published in different years) Laudon and Traver (2017, 2018) explain that... Laudon, K. C. and Traver, C. G. (2017) E-commerce 2017 : business, technology, society. 13th edn. Harlow, Essex : Pearson Education.

Laudon, K. C. and Traver, C. G. (2018) E-commerce 2018 : business, technology, society 14th edn. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education..

Book – multiple works by same author (published in same year) The view proposed by Godfrey (2013a, 2013b)... Godfrey, J. (2013a) How to use your reading in your essays. 2nd edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Godfrey, J. (2013b) The student phrase book : vocabulary for writing at university Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Book – no identifiable author Debenture is defined as... (Dictionary of Business Terms, 2008, p. 40). Dictionary of Business Terms (2008) Wokingham: Kaplan Publishing.
eBook – from an eBook reader. (no page numbers) 1. According to Stiglitz (2013, loc. 1956) the... 2. Smith (2012, cha. 5, sec. 4, para. 9).stated…

3. Jones (2011, no pagination). warned that…>

Stiglitz, J. (2013). The price of inequality. [Name of e-book reader] London: Penguin.



  1. Kindles allow users to see the location of text, use this as an identifier (loc.).
  2. For other formats use chapter (cha.), section (sec.) and paragraph (para.) where possible.
  3. If none exist use no pagination
eBook from (DBS eBook collection) The principles of good accounting practice, as set out by Dyson (2017, p. 19) ... Dyson, J.R. (2007) Accounting for non-accounting students. 9th edn. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education. Ebookcentral.proquest [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 16 November 2020)
For more information and examples please refer to the following publication (available in the Library): Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2022) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. Durham: Pear Tree Books stated…

MANAGING YOUR REFERENCES : You can use a software package such as Zotero to manage your references. Check out the Library’s guide to Zotero, available online & in the Library…


Use the name of the city in which the publisher is located in your reference. If there is more than one city listed (e.g. New York, London, etc.) use the nearest geographical place or the location of the publisher’s head office.

If the town/city is not well known, you may add a county, region or state. Note, in the USA states are denoted by a two letter code, e.g. NJ = New Jersey.

This and other bibliographic information, can be found on the back of the book's title page

Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Journal - article from a print journal small businesses struggle to measure the value of sponsorship (Meenaghan, 2018, p. 16). Meenaghan, T. (2018) ‘Taking sponsorship to the next level’, Irish Marketing Journal, 44(6), pp. 16-18.

Volume & Issue information:

44 = Volume number

6 = Issue number

eJournal – full text article in an electronic database According to Satell (2018, p. 21), “We need to prepare for a new era of innovation, one in which technologies such as genomics, materials science, and robotics rise to the fore”. Satell, G. (2018) ‘The industrial era ended, and so will the digital era: interaction’, Harvard Business Review, 96 (5), pp. 21-21. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost [Online]. (Accessed: 16 November 2018).
eJournal – full text article from a free open-access online journal Findings by Sweeney and Hughes (2017, p.24) indicate ..                                        Sweeney, S. and Hughes, D. (2017) 'Integrating visual literacy training into the business curriculum. A case study at Dublin Business School', DBS Business Review, 1(0). Available at: doi: 10.22375/dbsbr.v1.7. (Accessed: 16 November 2018).
Newspaper – article from a print newspaper ... to curb their public debts and deficit spending (Peel, 2010). Peel, Q. (2010) ‘Berlin pushes for global curbs’. Financial Times, 21 May, p. 6.


eNewspaper – article from an online newspaper (accessed directly through the newspaper’s website) ... Google is in danger of incurring large fines from the EU (The Irish Times, 2018).

If an authors name is given, enter in the citation & reference list.

The Irish Times (2018) ‘Google accused of abusing location tracking tools’, The Irish Times, 27 November 2018 [Online].  Available at: (Accessed: 24 May 2010).
eReport – from an electronic database It was noted recently by Mintel (2009)... Mintel (2009); Non-traditional Financial Services Providers - Evaluating the role of NTPs in Ireland;Mintel oxygen reports platform, Irish series [Online]. (Accessed: 25 May 2010).

Evaluating Websites: You should always ask the question ‘Is this website reliable?’ when using the internet for research. Check out the guide to ‘Evaluating Websites’ for further details.


Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Web page with an individual author In a bid to create a more profitable service (Todd, 2010). Todd, S. (2010) ‘Fine tuning spa menus with CRASE’, Leisure Management. Available at:  (Accessed: 24 May 2010)


Web page with an organisation as author ... should help in identifying those patterns.” (Department of Enterprise, Trade and Innovation, 2010). Department of Enterprise, Trade and Innovation (2010) ‘Credit Supply Clearing Group’. Available at: (Accessed: 24 May 2010).
Web page with no author The prime minister will say "progress will not always be smooth" Theresa May: 'We can prove Brexit doomsayers wrong' (2017). Available at: (Accessed: 9 Oct 2017).
Web page with no author and no date ...can only be traded on a recognised exchange (‘A Reuters guide to Equity Derivatives’, no date). 'A Reuters guide to Equity Derivatives (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 25 May 2010).
Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Podcast with author/presenter Verity et al. (2018) noted that the Olympics had a detrimental effect on sales Verity, A. et al. (2018) Retail sales figures [Podcast]. 4 September. Available at: (Accessed: 25 September 2018).
Podcast without author Internal networks are critical (Oracle Business Sense, 2018) ... Oracle Business Sense (2013) Structure [Podcast]. 12 June. Available at:,,329509709,00.xml (Accessed: 17 October 2018).
Online video sharing platform (YouTube, TED etc.) - specific part of video When mixing the plaster (Leponline, 2017, 02:00) ... Lancashire Post. (2009). Ask the experts – plastering. Available at: (Accessed: 13 January 2017).
Online video sharing platform - entire video By making Mars inhabitable (National Geographic, 2018) ... National Geographic (2018) Could we terraform Mars? 1 November. Available at: (Accessed: 21 July 2018).
Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Facebook The HIQUA report noted the need for investment in ambulance services (Varadkar, 2014). Varadkar, L. (2014). HIQUA report can be catalyst for further improvement of ambulance services. [Facebook]. 2 December. Available at: 7 February 2019)
Instagram posts/stories He offered her a slice of cake (Tusk, 2018) … Tusk, D. (2018) ‘A piece of cake perhaps?’ [Instagram]. 20 September. Available at: (Accessed: 7 February 2019).
Twitter Laura Kuenssbrg (2018) tweeted on the party conference. Kuenssberg, L. [@bbclauarak] (2018) anyone might imagine that inside he’s a tiny bit pleased [Twitter] 25 September. Available at: (Accessed: 19 December 2018).

Type In-Text Citation Reference List
Citing Computer Code in a Report or Paper [Code Example] (Parnot, 2012) Parnot, C. (2012). ‘Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, 1.0.’ GitHub. [Source Code]. Available at: [Accessed: Jan. 11 2019].


Citing a Dataset in a Report or Paper General house characteristics were recorded by Ambrose (2018) Ambrose, M. (2018) ‘Air Infiltration Results for 129 Australian Dwellings, vol. 1’. Available at: [Accessed: July 4, 2019].
Citing Software in a Report or Paper Use of Mixed Mode–Mixed level Circuit Simulator (Arning, 2011) Arning, D.W. (2011) Mixed Mode–Mixed level Circuit Simulator. (2011). Ngspice. [Software]. Available at: [Accessed: Jan. 11, 2019.]
Citing a Code Repository in a Report or Paper “a collection of preprogrammed templates that implement a behavior when invoked” (Github, no date) Github (no date) “library. Github Topics. Github.”(no date). [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: Oct. 9 2017].



Online Help Desk:


More hours